Water Disinfection

Stop waterborne pathogens in potable or process water


Point of Entry (POE)

Simply put, Point-of-entry (POE) systems involve the installation of water treatment equipment on the main incoming water line to a property whether a home or business. POE systems treat all of the water entering the home, except in some cases, where the water used exclusively for irrigation purposes is left untreated.

Point-of-entry treatment should be distinguished from point-of-use (POU) treatment, which involves the treatment of water only at a single tap or application.

The PearlAqua Deca is the worlds first LED driven Ultra-Violet POE water disinfection system offering flow rates of  upto 47 lpm.

With a 5 year lamp replacement interval, UV intensity monitoring; Power modulation according to flow rate; Intermittent flow related switching and unlimited on/off cycles as standard. The Deca proves itself to be the only POE water disinfection system worth buying.


Point of Use (POU)

POU treatment devices rely on many of the same treatment technologies that have been used in POE Systems. However, while a central treatment plant will treat all water distributed to the wider house or business premises, POU treatment devices are designed to treat only a portion of the total flow. POU devices treat only the water intended for direct consumption (drinking and cooking) or a process application, typically at a single tap or limited number of taps, while POE treatment devices are typically installed to treat all water entering a single home, business, school, or facility. Selective water treatment may provide a more cost effect solution and offer more protection to a specific outlet or process.

The PearlAqua Micro will be a valuable asset in these instances. With the Option of power saving flow related on/off switching LEDs allow instant lamp intensity compared to slower mercury lamps that need to 'warm up to effective intensity,' thus ensuring all water that passes the devise has the correct UV-C dose to inactivate waterborne pathogens.


Private Water Supplies - Borehole / Well Water

What are Private Water Supplies? A private water supply (PWS) is any water supply which supplies one or more properties that is not provided by a water company. About 1% of the population of England and Wales use a PWS. Most of these supplies are situated in remote, rural parts of the country and can originate from a range of sources including boreholes, natural springs and watercourses.

The majority of private water supplies in England and Wales supply only a single dwelling, where the water is used exclusively for domestic purposes (e.g. where the water is used for cooking, drinking, food preparation, bathing, showering and laundry) and where the water is not used for any commercial activity (such as bed and breakfast or tea shop/cafe)). Some examples of single dwellings include the following (this list is illustrative and is not exhaustive):

  • a house (detached, semi-detached, terraced)

  • a bungalow/chalet (detached, semi-detached)

  • flats/apartments (where the supply feeds a single residence only)

The regulations in England and Wales do not require monitoring to be undertaken at these supplies unless the local authority is requested to do so by the owner or occupier of the dwelling.  If monitoring is requested the local authority should test for the following parameters as a minimum: 

  • Conductivity

  • Enterococci

  • Escherichia coli (E.coli)

  • hydrogen ion (pH value)

  • turbidity

If the water at a dwelling is being used as part of a commercial or public activity including, in some cases, where the dwelling is being rented by tenants (including short term lets, such as holiday cottages or bed and breakfast accommodation), monitoring and risk assessment is required.

To combat any elevated bacteriological load within the water supply Ultra Violet Disinfection has proved for many years to be an effective method of disinfecting drinking water. See our range of PearlAqua UV-C LED systems which offer unrivalled advantages in water disinfection.  

Pre-Filtration and possibly treatment will be a prerequisite to UV-C Disinfection in a private water supply scenario, this will reduce turbidity, remove particulate, remove nitrates and organics and if required Iron and Manganese.

For further information on Private Water Supplies visit the Drinking Water Inspectorate Website.


Drinking Fountains and Water Coolers

Water in drinking fountains generally comes from a hard plumbed water pipe supplied by the Cold Water Services within commercial buildings, this may be a school, health care facility, business premises, or gymnasium etc. Water distribution within these buildings is constantly monitored due to being a commercial site and challenges to combat high levels of Bacteriological TVC's (Total Viable Count) is constant. Point of Use Water Disinfection using LED Generated UV-C light may be a solution to offer wholesome water at these drinking outlets. The Pearl Aqua Micro a cost effective and worlds smallest POU 12V Powered LED UV-C disinfection system can easily integrate into the pipework feeding a water fountain, combined with its optional 'add on' flow switch, an On Demand Disinfection system is produced when water passing brings the LED lamp on. With LED UV-C Technology and Instant Inactivation intensity is reached when the Lamps are switched on thus guaranteeing that no water passes the system untreated. In addition as the Lamps are off when in a 'No Flow' situation, water does not heat up causing biological fouling. LED UV technology benefits from unlimited switching, combine this with a 10,000 hour lamp life the PearlAqua Micro will provide peace of mind for your drinking water outlets for years before replacement is required.  



Humidification is used in many commercial applications some of which include - 

  • Preventing Static Electricity Build-Up and Evaporative Cooling  in Data Centres​

  • Providing appropriate humidity in pharmaceutical manufacturing processes

  • Providing appropriate humidity in Health Care Facilities for recovery and rest 

Humidifiers work by emitting water vapor or steam into an environment. As water is aerosolised and becomes breathable the consideration for pre-treatment is paramount as airborne bacteria within an environment can lead to severe ill health if inhaled, especially if  people are immunocompromised. The PearlAqua Micro or PearlAqua Standard UV-C Water Disinfection Systems offer straight forward OEM integration or simple pre-plant installation and offer benefits such as -

  • Unlimited on/off cycles

  • upto 10,000 hours 'lamp on' life

  • Instant inactivation lamp intensity on start-up

Choose LED UV-C Systems as partners on the next project.  


Caravan water disinfection

In caravans, fresh water is mostly drawn from a mobile tank. Mobile tanks have rollers that allow them to be pulled easily to the water tap on location. This water is either then pumped directly to the water outlet via a submersible pump that is inserted with the suction lance inside the mobile tank, or transferred to a larger fixed holding tank installed, insulated and heated beneath the floor or under the bench or the sink, from here it is pumped to the outlets.

The volume depends on the size of the caravan, among other things. Small tanks hold about 25 litres, larger water tanks have capacities of up to 70 litres.

Some modern caravans can also include the option of direct connection to a dedicated tap on your pitch.

In motor homes, clean water is mainly kept in a fixed water tank. This is filled via an outside nozzle. Depending on the space in the motor home, the tank can hold between 40 and 200 litres of water.

Pump operation in modern caravans is activated via a micro-switch in the tap head which makes a 12V circuit either supplying power to the pump directly or indirectly via a relay when water is called for. Closing of the tap will either stop the pump or allow the pump to continue running to build pressure in the water circuit again.

All water tanks and water distribution tubes are made of high-quality material that is suitable for drinking water. This does not however mean that they prevent bacteriological growth.

To prevent biological growth which will lead to formation of biofilm within your tank and water distribution pipework if left unchecked, water tanks should be emptied, cleaned and disinfected regularly; as well as when they have not been used for some time. Chemicals for caravan potable system cleans are readily available on the market, including instruction for dosing and pulling the chemical through the system to letting it sit in the pipes so it can disinfect and remove any biofilm.

Although you may be confident of your disinfection process on your tanks and pipework, you may not be so confident of the water quality on camp or touring sites that you are drawing into the caravan. In this instance point of use (POU) disinfection may be a solution to give you confidence that water is of a potable nature. The Mobile Leisure Micro 12C-450 our advanced LED Ultra-Violet disinfection system requires only 12V to run and will offer 99.99% pathogen reduction. This system is the smallest POU UV-C disinfection system in the world and uses 3/8” push-fit connections. This means that it can be installed directly under your tap after your water filter using off the shelf John Guest fittings. LED UVs when switched on immediately give full germicidal inactivation power, so when linked into your 12V supply switching your pump, the UV-C LEDs will disinfect any water that passes. If you have a pressure switch driven system without a microswitch in your tap or an indirect 12V activated pump, we offer a flow sensor which will activate the LEDs when flow passes the sensor, this can be wired directly to your 12V supply. LED UV technology offers up to 10,000 hours of ‘lamp on’ time, which only counts down when the unit is switched on. Therefore, the micro will undoubtedly last you the length of time you own the caravan and probably the next owner.


Reverse Osmosis

Reverse Osmosis systems apply pressure over a semi permeable membrane to remove salts and other effluent materials to produce pure water. Water passes through a wound membrane with a pore size of 0.001 microns more easily than contaminates, therefore suspended matter and around 98% of dissolved ions are removed.

Reverse Osmosis (RO) systems can reject many types of dissolved or suspended chemical species as well as biological ones such as bacteria for process or drinking water.

RO water is widely used in commercial applications to provide processes a known water quality which will react expectedly within the specific field of use. The reduced mineral load means there are no scale issues, reduced precipitation of minerals when heated or chemicals are added and a reduced electrical potential. The removal of the biological contaminant provides water which will not infect downstream water lines with biofilm therefore reducing the risk of biological proliferation and dispersion into the application.

Water that has the majority of its mineral load (conductivity) removed is out of balance; water is a natural solvent and wants to react with materials absorbing their ions until a water harmony is achieved. This means materials used in pipes downstream of the RO (permeate) should be selected based on their resilience to leach ions into the water.

Although RO systems are fantastic at removing bacteria, they are not able to influence control down stream of the plant. Bacteria can ingress in many ways such as – being drawn into any permeate holding tank: When the water level changes due to demand, air is sucked into the tank due to a vacuum being produced when the water drops. -  Pipework leaks: Pipes that leak allow bacteria to grow in the water that is found within the leaky joint/pipe and will eventually grow inside the pipe seeding bacteria further downstream. - Maintenance activities: Any pipework modifications, plant changes or maintenance which opens the water circuit to the surrounding environment allows biological ingress.

To prevent biologically contaminated water reaching your point of use it is advised that sterilisation is used at point of RO water manufacture: Installation of an Ultra-Violet system after your permeate tank, booster set and any further filtration or de-ionisation vessels; And at the Point of Use: Local installation of UV disinfection at the tap/process outlet. By Using Ultra-Violet photons to sterilise the water, bacteria cannot reproduce therefore mitigating risks of biofilm growth and active planktonic pathogens passing into the application. Most Reverse Osmosis systems providing water to either laboratories, electronics washing stations, drinking water outlets or any other use have an intermittent demand. High purity water may be produced and stored in a bulk tank ready for boosting to a ring main but is only drawn from the system when a tap is opened. This intermittent demand is not suitable for UV Lamps using mercury vapour to provide the UV-C photons. Mercury lamps operate at high temperatures which will induce heat into the water when no flow is present, this reduces the life of the lamp, reduces the ability for UV-C photon generation and escalates biological growth in local pipework due to the warmer climate. Moreover, mercury lamps require minutes to warm to germicidal irradiance power so it is not possible to switch the lamps on and off when flow dictates as un-treated water would pass; in addition further degradation of the lamp would occur due to constant switching. Here LED UV technology finds its niche, LED produced UV-C photons work in exactly the same way as a mercury vapour lamp but with many advantages.

1. The LED’s can be switched on and off unlimited times without degrading the LED’s.

2. When power is applied the LED’s reach full germicidal irradiance instantly.

3. LED’s are forward facing so UV light is provided at point of water contact whilst heat is managed at the rear of the system, this prevents heat transfer to the water.

4. Fluctuating temperatures do not affect the LED’s ability to produce UV photons, therefore they are able to work in shifting water temperatures without issues.

5. Because of the ability to reach instant power and can be switched on and off (via a controller or flow switch) unlimited times, the LED UV units are very much at home where intermittent flows are present.

6. Lamp life up to 10,000 hours and only counted when the LED’s are on. This means the LED UV system provides potentially years of trouble-free disinfection of your RO Permeate water.

Consider the PearlAqua Deca or PearlAqua Standard LED UV system for your Point of Permeate Manufacture and Distribution and the PearlAqua Micro for your point of use/application final disinfection.


Yacht/ Sailing/ Motor boat

Watermakers are well thought of these days, the prices have come down and efficiencies increased over the last few years and they are a must for any ocean crossing, however not every boater will be cruising to the Bahamas or Mexico, many are content with shorter jaunts dock hopping around the many European Harbours. These Boaters can survive on belly tanks topped up at the dockside for their drinking and cooking water. Like all potable tanks, water tanks on boats also need a maintenance regimen, cleaning and sterilising prior to the season’s activities, drawing disinfectant through the distribution pipework to remove any biofilm formed during periods of limited use. The disinfection may settle your concerns about the cleanliness of your boats water system however what about the water you put in it at dockside? A chlorine tablet will do the job to neutralise any biological activity, but you’ll have to put up with the taste. The alternative is to utilise Ultra-Violet Sterilisation, UV Photons are widely renowned as an excellent method of disinfection without the need of chemicals, therefore the water is not changed or added to in any way other than the breakdown of the DNA in any bacteria present, rendering the waterborne pathogen sterile. Not being able to reproduce the bacteria is unable to colonise and cause upset stomachs and illness. LED UV-C Systems Ltd offer a couple of solutions in the UV Market which are ideal for your Sailing Yacht or Motor Boat –

  • The point of use solution: PearlAqua Micro – offering flow-controlled inactivation of pathogens with flows upto 6.4 lpm. Install just prior to your tap with simple 3/8” or ½” Push fit tube fittings. 24V or 12V options.

  • The Whole boat solution: The PearlAqua Deca – Flow rates upto 45 lpm with dynamic power modulation which ramps the LED UV lights up and down according to flowrate throughput. Install prior to distribution to multiple outlets using ¾” NPT fittings. 24V supply.

LED’s are a fresh take on Ultraviolet Photon Generation and offer a myriad of benefits over conventional mercury lamp systems, firstly and most importantly you can switch them on and off as many times as you want without detrimental wear on the lamp. Secondly when switched on they are at instant kill intensity, this fact along with the unlimited switching means that the LED UV systems can be switched on and off according to flow, therefore not using power or heating up your water when no water is being used. With ‘Lamp on’ duties of 8,000 to 10,000 hours for the Micro and 5,000 hours for the Deca, an investment in these systems will disinfect your drinking water in your boat for many years to come. Avoid the need of purchasing multipacks of bottled water, remove adding to the plastics concern, disinfect your drinking water with confidence with LED UV Technology.